Tuesday, February 9, 2016

World Weather Hot Spot for February 9-10,2016 from accuweather.com

United Kingdom: Strong,storm-force winds;winds gusted up to 96-mph from Storm Imogen.

WeatherWhys for February 9,2016 from accuweather.com

On this date in 1934, several Northeast U.S. cities set their all-time lowest temperatures. Boston, Massachusetts fell to 18 degrees below zero F, while New York City dropped to minus 15 F.

New York City metro-area forecast for February 9-23,2016 from weather.com

Here's the 15-day weather forecast for the New York City metro-area for the period of February 9-23,2016 from The Weather Channel's web-site; weather.com

Today,February 9: Remaining cloudy,wintry,raw and seasonably cold for mid-winter with a chance for a few snow flurries or snow showers and a high temperature in the lower and middle 30's.As of 1:15PM,EST,it's 34 degrees and partly cloudy,with 62% humidity,in White Plains,NY,and it's also 34 degrees,but cloudy,with 61% humidity,in New York City.

Tonight: Remaining wintry,raw and cold with variable cloudiness and a chance for some snow showers and a low temperature holding around 30 degrees,overnight.

Tomorrow,February 10: Ash Wednesday 2016 will be remaining cloudy and wintry,but not as cold with more morning snow showers and a high temperature in the upper 30's to lower 40's.

Tomorrow night: Becoming partly cloudy and seasonably very cold for mid-winter with increasing cloudiness and a chance for a few snow flurries or snow showers possible and a low temperature dropping to the middle 20's,overnight.

Thursday,February 11: Turning partly cloudy and much colder,as it turns very cold with increasing cloudiness and a chance for a few snow flurries or snow showers possible and a high temperature holding only in the upper 20's to lower 30's.Becoming much colder than recent nights,as it turns unseasonably bitterly cold for mid-to-late winter with some evening cloudiness giving way to generally clear skies and a low temperature dropping to the lower and middle teens above zero, overnight.

Friday,February 12: Becoming mostly sunny early followed by increasing cloudiness and a high temperature only in the upper 20's to lower 30's,once again.Remaining cloudy through the evening followed by partial clearing and a low temperature dropping to around 20 degrees,overnight.

Saturday,February 13: Becoming partly cloudy,windy,and quite cold to frigid with gusty winds and dangerously low wind chills and a high temperature holding around 20 degrees.Becoming brutally cold to dangerously frigid with a few clouds and a near record low temperature plunging to A FEW DEGREES BELOW ZERO,overnight.

Sunday,February 14: Valentine's Day 2016 will be turning sunny,but remaining bitterly cold with a high temperature only in the lower and middle 20's.Not as harsh,but still bitterly cold,with mainly clear skies and a low temperature dropping to 10-15 degrees above zero,overnight.

Monday,February 15: President's Day 2016 will be turning cloudy and warmer than recent days with a chance for some afternoon snow showers and a high temperature in the lower and middle 30's.Snow accumulations of up to 1 inch are possible by evening.Remaining cloudy and wintry,but turning markedly warmer than recent nights with variable cloudiness and a chance for a snow shower and a low temperature dropping to 25-30 degrees,overnight.Snow accumulations of 3-6 inches are possible by morning.

Tuesday,February 16: Remaining cloudy,but turning even warmer,as it turns markedly warmer than recent days with a morning wintry mix of rain and snow followed by decreasing cloudiness and a high temperature in the lower and middle 40's.Remaining seasonably cold for mid-February and mid-to-late winter with a few clouds and a low temperature dropping to the upper 20's to lower 30's,overnight.

Wednesday,February 17: Remaining seasonably chilly for mid-to-late February and late winter with a mix of clouds and sunshine and a high temperature of 40-45 degrees.Becoming mainly clear,but remaining seasonably cold for mid-to-late February with a low temperature dropping to 25-30 degrees,overnight.

Thursday,February 18: Remaining mostly sunny and seasonably chilly for late winter with a high temperature of 40-45 degrees,once again.Becoming partly cloudy,but remaining seasonably cold for mid-to-late February with a low temperature dropping to around 30 degrees,overnight.

Friday,February 19: Turning cloudy,rainy,and warmer than recent days with a morning wintry mix of rain and snow followed by some afternoon rain showers and a high temperature of 45-50 degrees.Remaining cloudy,wintry,and cold,with a chance for a wintry mix of rain and snow and a low temperature dropping to 30-35 degrees,overnight.

Saturday,February 20: Turning even milder with a morning wintry mix of rain and snow followed by some afternoon rain showers and a high temperature in the upper 40's to lower 50's.Remaining cloudy and rainy,but turning wintry late with a chance for some evening rain followed by a late-night wintry mix of rain and snow and a low temperature dropping to the lower and middle 30's,overnight.

Sunday,February 21: Remaining a bit mild for late February and late winter with a mix of sunshine and some clouds and a high temperature in the upper 40's to lower 50's,once again.Becoming cloudy and wintry with a chance for an evening wintry mix of rain and snow followed by some late-night snow showers possible and a low temperature dropping to 30-35 degrees,overnight.

Monday,February 22: Remaining cloudy and wintry early,then rainy with a morning wintry mix of rain and snow followed by mostly cloudy afternoon skies and a high temperature of around 50 degrees.Becoming partly cloudy with a chance for a few late-night snow showers possible and a low temperature dropping to 30-35 degrees,once again,overnight.

Tuesday,February 23: Remaining cloudy and wintry early,then turning rainy with a chance for a morning wintry mix of rain and snow followed by some afternoon rain showers and a high temperature of 45-50 degrees.Remaining cloudy,cold,raw,and wintry with a chance for some evening wintry mix of rain and snow followed by some late-night snow showers and a low temperature dropping to the middle 30's,overnight.Snow accumulations of up to an inch are possible.

Weather Underground National Forecast for Tuesday,February 9,2016

By: nationalsummary , 11:00PM,GMT on February 8,2016

Weather Underground Forecast for Tuesday,February 9,2016

A complex area of low pressure will impact the Northeast on Tuesday, while high pressure influences dry conditions over the western third of the country.

An area of low pressure will shift slowly eastward over the Great Lakes. This system will produce lake enhanced snow downwind of the Great Lakes, which will lead to locally heavy snow showers in parts of western Michigan and northern Indiana. Lighter snow showers will spread across the Midwest and the Tennessee Valley as an arctic air mass plunges southeastward. Temperatures will drop 10 to 25 degrees below normal across the Midwest, the Ohio Valley and the Southeast. A separate, more robust low pressure system will develop over the Mid-Atlantic. This system will push northeastward, generating a mixture of heavy rain and snow across the Mid-Atlantic and parts of southern New England. Light to moderate snow will linger over northern New England as an Atlantic system pushes north northeastward over southeast Canada.

To the west, a stationary front will extend south southeastward over south central Canada and the northern Plains. Mixed precipitation will develop along this frontal boundary over eastern Montana, North Dakota, South Dakota and northern Nebraska.

A pair of high pressure systems will continue to influence dry conditions west of the Continental Divide. Temperatures will remain 10 to 20 degrees above normal across southern California on Tuesday.

This Date in Weather History for February 9,2016 from weatherforyou.com

Weather History
For Tuesday,February 9,2016
1933 - The temperature at Moran, WY, located next to Teton National Park, plunged to 63 degrees below zero to establish a state record. The temperature at the Riverside Ranger Station in Montana dipped to 66 below zero to establish a record for the state, and a record for the nation which stood until 1954. (David Ludlum)
1934 - The mercury dipped to 51 degrees below zero at Vanderbilt to establish a record for the state of Michigan. The temperature at Stillwater plunged to 52 degrees below zero to establish a record for the state of New York. (David Ludlum)
1987 - A storm off the Atlantic coast produced high winds and heavy snow in the northeastern U.S., with blizzard conditions in eastern Massachusetts. Wind gusted to 80 mph and 23.4 inches of snow produced drifts eight feet high at Cape Cod MA. It was the worst blizzard in thirty years for the Cape Cod area. Winds in some of the mountains and ridges of the Appalachian Region gusted to 100 mph. (The National Weather Summary) (Storm Data)
1988 - Arctic cold invaded the north central U.S. Alliance NE plunged from 44 degrees to 12 above in just two hours, and Mobridge SD reported a wind chill of 64 degrees below zero. Winds along the eastern slopes of the Rockies gusted to 90 mph at Cheyenne WY, and reached 96 mph at Boulder CO. (The National Weather Summary) (Storm Data)
1989 - A winter storm continued to bring rain and snow to southern California. Snowfall totals ranged up to 18 inches at Olancha, with three inches at Palmdale. (The National Weather Summary) (Storm Data)
1990 - Thunderstorms developing ahead of a cold front erupted over eastern Texas late in the morning, and produced severe weather as they swept across the southeastern states. Early evening thunderstorms spawned a tornado which injured one person at Nat TX, and produced tennis balls size hail which caused more than half a million dollars damage around Shreveport LA. (The National Weather Summary) (Storm Data)

Monday, February 8, 2016

Winter 2015-2016 U.S. Mid-Term Report Card: The Snowiest, Coldest and Mildest

Jon Erdman
Published: February 6,2016

Think winter 2015-2016 has been harsh so far? There's a metric out there that helps quantify it.
The accumulated winter season severity index, or AWSSI, combines temperature, snowfall and snow depth data in a point system to rate each winter dating to 1950-1951 at dozens of locations in the U.S. The colder and snowier the winter, the higher the AWSSI score.
Winters are then categorized in one of five categories: mild, moderate, average, severe, or extreme.
"The categories are site-specific...because what constitutes a severe winter, say, in Washington D.C. or Atlanta would be considered mild in Chicago or Minneapolis," said Dr. Barbara Mayes Boustead, a co-creator of AWSSI, and forecaster at the National Weather Service in Omaha, Nebraska.
"We wanted the index to be representative, easy to compute, and be able to use readily available data," said Steven Hilberg, co-creator of AWSSI at the Midwest Regional Climate Center.
Mayes Boustead said her inspiration for this research was the "Long Winter" of 1880-1881 made famous by Laura Ingalls Wilder. "I wanted to put that winter into context - was it the 'worst' in history (for that region) and how do you define a severe winter season?"

Winter 2015-2016: Mild For Most

AWSSI national index values for winter 2015-2016 as of Feb. 3, 2016. City locations color-coded based on severity of winter, as shown by legend at left.

Based on those AWSSI values, we're handing out our mid-term grades.
Cities receiving an "A" have been much snowier and colder than average, the envy of The Weather Channel winter weather expert, Tom Niziol. They're the winter nerds, honor students, finalists for valedictorian, and those that do extra credit even after nailing an exam. Think Brian Johnson, played by Anthony Michael Hall, in the 1985 classic "The Breakfast Club."
Receiving a "B" grade are those few cities denoted by light blue dots, classified as "severe" winters by the AWSSI. Above average, but not extreme relative to other winters-to-date in each location.
Winter's slacker cities get an "F". They're the persistently warmest and least snowy of the bunch, setting records for the most mild winter-to-date for those locations, denoted by the red diamonds on the AWSSI map. Using the "Breakfast Club" analogy, they're John Bender, played by Judd Nelson.
According to the AWSSI calculations, most of Lower 48 states have skated by with a fairly benign winter, as shown by the sheer volume of red and orange dots in the graphic above, denoting mild or moderate winters as of February 4, 2016. These cities get a "D" grade.

"F": Record Mild Winters

These cities had a record mild pace, according to the AWSSI, so far this winter. (Note that the parameters below aren't strictly the same as those in the AWSSI, but are listed to give a general overview on the winter, so far.)
 Season-to-Date Snowfall DepartureSeason Snow So FarNov-Jan Temp Ranking
Albany, NY-31.1"5.5"2nd warmest
Burlington, VT-26.4"20.4"Record warmest
Sault Ste. Marie, MI-42.3"42.6"3rd warmest
Wichita, KS-9"0.8"4th warmest
Williamsport, PA-19.7"0.9"Tied 2nd warmest
The capital of the Empire State was only pacing 0.5 inch above the least snowy start to the season, set during President Teddy Roosevelt's second term (1905-1906). In the heart of winter, Albany hadn't seen any snow on the ground from January 19 through February 4.
Couple that with a near record-warm pace since November and they firmly belong on this list.

Plot of the record low season-to-date AWSSI through Feb. 4, 2016 for Albany, New York, indicated by the black line.

Williamsport, Pennsylvania, one-upped Albany, setting their least snowy start to the season, a snow total they typically see by November 19.
Finally, how about one of America's snowiest cities, Sault Ste. Marie, Michigan, sporting an over 3.5-foot snowfall deficit!

"C": Average Students

These cities are right about par for the course this winter, according to the AWSSI. In some cases, a city may have been quite snowy, but overall warm. In others, persistent cold makes up for a dearth of snow.
 Season-to-Date Snowfall DepartureSeason Snow So FarNov-Jan Temp Ranking
Asheville, NC8.3"13.8"Tied 6th warmest
Boise, ID-4.4"10.9"Tied 64th warmest
Charleston, WV1.8"21.7"Tied 10th warmest
Helena, MT-8.3"14.8"Tied 60th warmest
Lynchburg, VA2.8"10.2"Tied 8th warmest
New York City13.8"27.2"Record warmest
Pendleton, OR-7.6"4.1"57th warmest
Philadelphia11.3"22.9"2nd warmest
Pierre, SD6.4"22.9"Tied 24th warmest
Richmond, VA5.3"12.1"Tied 6th warmest
Salt Lake City-7.3"29"Tied 64th warmest
Sioux Falls, SD21.9"47.5"Tied 17th warmest
Spokane, WA-1.1"33.6"Tied 50th warmest
In the case of New York City and Philadelphia, one massive winter storm, Jonas, makes the "average" winter-to-date label misleading.
Through January 21, only 0.4 inch was measured the entire season at New York's Central Park, one of the city's least snowy starts to a season. Add what has been one of, if not the warmest, winter on record in much of the Northeast, and it sure seems winter has largely underachieved.
Interestingly, despite rather healthy mountain snowpack overall, many lower elevation cities in the West, shown in the table above, have been a little lacking in snow this season. The "average" AWSSI rating, then, is a result of the persistent cold.

"A": The Lone Honor Student

No U.S. city has had a record extreme winter, so far, according to the AWSSI calculations. So, in a sign of "grading on a curve", we'll highlight one shining example for the rest of the class to look up to: Flagstaff, Arizona.

After about 2 feet of snow this week, here's the view of the NWS Flagstaff office this morning!
Tweet above from January 8, 2016 after 30.9 inches of snow was measured at Flagstaff's Pulliam Airport in just over four days.This northern Arizona city, at an elevation of about 7,000 feet, by the way, has already surpassed their seasonal snowfall from each of the past three seasons, tallying almost 6 feet of snow (71.7 inches) through February 4, 2016.
What also helped boost their AWSSI score was the persistence of snow cover. According to the National Weather Service, at least one inch of snow on the ground had persisted in Flagstaff for almost two straight months, as of February 4. This was one of the longest such streaks on record, there.
The only factor keeping Flagstaff from chalking up a record extreme start to winter has been temperatures.
While overall, the winter has featured numerous bouts of cold, the magnitude of it has not been record-shattering. For example, they've had five days with subzero low temperatures, but that's about par for the course from November through early February.
You can read the complete 2015 paper about AWSSI in the Journal of Applied Meteorology and Climatology here.

MORE: Winter Storm Jonas (PHOTOS)

Massachusetts Girl Killed By Snow-Laden Branch

Associated Press
Published: February 6,2016

 A 6-year-old Massachusetts girl has died after being pinned by a large tree limb in her backyard during Winter Storm Lexi. 
According to Mass Live, the girl's parents told police that Kaleigh Kenyon was at her home in Canton, about 15 miles south of Boston Friday afternoon when the limb, apparently weighted down by the wet sticky snow, snapped and dropped some 35 feet to the ground.
Kaleigh Kenyon was killed by a falling branch Friday during Winter Storm Lexi.
(Courtesy of WBZ)

Kaleigh's father and brother were in the backyard with her. “‘Oh, my God is my sister OK?’ and I literally ran over there with my dad and we tried lifting the tree,” Kaleigh's brother Nicholas, told WSBK. He said it a lot of branches and it was very heavy.
Police say she had been freed by the time they arrived on the scene, and a neighbor was performing CPR.
Kaleigh was excited to be out playing in the snow Nicholas told WCVB.
"She was running out and was saying, 'Daddy, let's build a snowman,'" Nicholas said. "The next thing I know, a tree broke and fell on her. I just ran at (the tree) and tried to lift her out of there, and almost couldn't."
Her father screamed for help and a neighbor called 911.
Another Canton resident was hit by a fallen tree branch on Friday evening, WCVB reports. Thomas Gunning, 48, was hospitalized and police report he is in grave condition. 
Police are urging residents, and especially children, to stay indoors because of the danger from falling trees and tree limbs.
(MORE: Winter Storm Lexi Impacts)
Massachusetts officials say heavy, wet snow has been bringing down tree limbs and power lines across the region.
The Massachusetts Bay Transportation Authority reported that a section of the heavily-traveled Green Line between Boston and suburban Newton was shut down in both directions after a tree fell across the tracks.
Tens of thousands of people were without power in southern New England.
MORE: Winter Storm Lexi

Two More Chances of Snow in the East Into Midweek

Linda Lam
Published: February 7,2016

A pattern change across the East will allow for two chances of snow over the next few days, as a series of low pressure systems develop near the coast.
While some snow and sleet has fallen as far south as eastern North Carolina from the first storm, portions of New England recently hit by Winter Storm Lexi could be digging out from more snow as we start the new week.
(MORE: Winter Storm Central)
Hopefully, you enjoyed the mild and record-breaking temperatures last week as significant changes are underway, thanks to a southward dip in the jet stream across the eastern United States. An "Alberta clipper" cold front will sweep through the northern Plains and into the Mississippi Valley to start the week, bringing another blast of arctic air. This cold front is then expected to push off the East Coast by Monday night or Tuesday morning.
Strong winds and snow associated with the clipper will cause blizzard conditions over parts of the northern Plains and Upper Midwest.
(MORE: Blizzard Conditions Likely Across North-Central States)
There are still differences in forecast model guidance for this pair of systems, which leaves uncertainty for exactly where and how much snow may fall.
Below we highlight the next two systems coming up.

System #1: Carolinas Into Sunday, New England Monday

The first system we are watching is currently strengthening off the coast of the Carolinas. The track of this offshore low will determine the ultimate impact of this system on the East Coast. That area of low pressure may undergo what meteorologists call bombogenesis. This is a term generally applied to a storm whose minimum pressure drops at least 24 millibars in 24 hours, indicating a strong and rapidly intensifying storm system.
Despite the far offshore track of the strong low, it will still have a significant impact on eastern New England due its very large area of precipitation and strong winds. An additional component of this storm is the potential for ocean-enhanced snowfall near the coast due to strong northeast winds helping to pull extra moisture in from the Atlantic.
The National Weather Service has already posted winter storm watches for parts of southeast New England, including Boston and Providence, in advance of the storm.
Below is our latest thinking on this system.

Winter Weather Alerts
Next Target for Snow: New England
  • Moderate to locally heavy snowfall will impact eastern New England on Monday, along with strong winds gusting to 45 mph. The combination of snow and wind may lead to low visibility and dangerous travel conditions, particularly near coastal locations.
  • Blizzard or near-blizzard conditions are possible south of Boston from coastal Plymouth County to Cape Cod and the Islands.
  • Accumulations of up to 6 inches are possible across much of eastern New England, including Boston.
  • A narrow stripe of heavier snow of up to 10 inches is expected in southeastern Massachusetts and northeast Maine.
  • Some downed tree limbs and power lines are possible in southeast Massachusetts due to strong winds and the weight of what will initially be wet snow.
  • Moderate coastal flooding is possible in eastern Massachusetts with the Monday late morning to midday high tide. Vulnerable roads and basements could be flooded, according to the National Weather Service.
  • At least a few snow showers or flurries will be possible as far west as the Jersey Shore and the New York City metropolitan area. However, no major accumulations are expected there.

Snowfall Forecast
Southeast Coastal Impacts
  • Rain from this system will impact the eastern Carolinas through Sunday.
  • There should be enough cold air across portions eastern North Carolina to bring some wet snowflakes or sleet into Sunday evening.
  • For now, we expect only spotty, light accumulations possibly causing some localized travel impacts. Traffic accidents were reported due to light sleet accumulations in Wilson County, North Carolina, Sunday morning.
  • Strong winds are also likely in the eastern Carolinas and southeast Virginia Sunday, along with minor or moderate coastal flooding. Portions of North Carolina's Outer Banks could see gusts to 60 mph through early Monday, potentially resulting in some power outages.
(FORECASTS: Charleston, South Carolina | Wilmington, North Carolina | Nantucket, Massachusetts)

System #2: South to Northeast Monday Night into Wednesday

Yet another round of snow and wind will quickly follow in behind the first system mentioned above Monday through Wednesday, however details on how impactful this system may be are uncertain.

Monday Night's Forecast
Key Points:
  • Monday and Monday night, a widespread area of snow showers will extend from the Great Lakes into the Appalachians, mid-Atlantic and even possibly parts of the Southeast.
  • Mainly light to locally moderate snow will linger Tuesday into Wednesday from the Great Lakes into the Appalachians and Northeast as low pressure develops and strengthens near or off the coast of the Northeast.

Tuesday's Forecast
  • Although it appears that the ingredients may not come together just right for a major winter storm, additional accumulating snow is likely across the region. Uncertainty exists with where some locally heavier totals may be found in the region.
(FORECASTS: Atlanta | Washington D.C. | Boston)

Snowfall Forecast Through Wednesday
Check back with weather.com for the latest updates on the potential for wintry conditions in the East over the next week.
MORE: Winter Storm Lexi (PHOTOS)

Arctic Cold Blast Incoming For the Midwest, East This Week

Quincy Vagell
Published: February 8,2016

A sharp, southward plunge in the jet stream is ushering in widespread arctic air from the Upper Midwest to the Gulf Coast and parts of the East to start this week. This may only be the beginning however, as there are indications that another surge of arctic air will arrive in parts of the Midwest and East this weekend. For some Northeast cities, that second blast of shivering temperatures could be the coldest of the season so far.
Cold air is nothing unusual for February, especially across the Midwest and East. However, following a recent January thaw, the pattern may make you forget about any groundhog’s call for an early spring.
Below are the forecast details on the shivering temperatures early this week and a preview of next weekend.

Current Temperatures

Cold Air Grips Midwest

Highs topped out 15 to 30 degrees colder on Monday than on Sunday for much of the Midwest. The result is a return to below-average temperatures across much of the region.

Midwest Forecast Highs This Week
After topping out in the 40s during the weekend, Chicago may not rise out of the teens or low 20s Tuesday through Thursday. In portions of eastern North Dakota and Minnesota, highs held in the teens on Monday and will likely be followed by a few subzero lows Tuesday morning. Widespread temperatures 10 to 20 degrees below average are anticipated on Tuesday, with parts of Minnesota only rising into the single digits for highs.
(FORECAST: Des Moines, Iowa | Louisville, Kentucky)
Wind chill values may drop into the teens and 20s below zero Tuesday and Wednesday morning in portions of the Upper Midwest, especially Minnesota, parts of Wisconsin and northern Iowa.

Forecast Highs Midweek
Farther south, daytime highs may stay below freezing across much of Missouri and Kentucky. However, despite the colder air, it is unlikely that this air mass will be impressive enough to cause any record low temperatures around the region.

Cooler Air Reaches the South, Too

The southward dip in the jet stream will also bring colder air to much of the South for the start of the week.
Highs in the 50s this weekend in the Nashville area have given way to 30s and 40s on Monday with some light snow falling as well. Snow may impact locations as far south as the southern Appalachians.

Forecast Highs in the South This Week
Widespread temperatures of 10 to 20 degrees below average are expected by Tuesday from the South, eastward to the parts of the mid-Atlantic states. Average highs may be in the mid-50s for Atlanta, but temperatures could struggle to get out of the 30s on Tuesday and Wednesday. Wind chills may drop into the teens as far south as Nashville and Atlanta midweek.
Through the middle of the week, colder air slides as far south and east as Florida, where northern and even central parts of the Sunshine State can expect highs in the 50s Tuesday and Wednesday. Lows in the 30s will surge as far south as central Florida by Wednesday morning. Miami may see highs in the 60s through late this week, with lows dipping into the 40s at times.
(FORECAST: Pensacola | Tallahassee)
Temperatures will be faster to recover in the Southern Plains and Lower Mississippi Valley during the week, but may remain either near or below mid-February averages much of the week in the Tennessee Valley, Carolinas, and perhaps parts of Florida.

Coldest Temperatures of the Season for the Northeast Next Weekend?

Our latest forecast guidance suggests that even more arctic air will surge southward from Canada late this week, keeping the cold weather pattern anchored over the Great Lakes and Northeast into Valentine's Day weekend.
In fact, several cities in the Northeast could see their coldest temperatures of the season so far next weekend. This includes Pittsburgh where the lowest temperature so far this season has been 3 degrees and Boston where the coldest temperature recorded this season is 8 degrees.
(FORECAST: Philadelphia | Albany, New York)

Forecast Lows
In addition to the very cold low temperatures, highs won't reach the freezing mark this weekend. Highs will only be in the 20s this weekend from Washington, D.C. to New York where average low temperatures for mid-February are in the mid to upper 20s.
Highs in western New York and northern New England may not even climb out of the single digits this weekend.
(MAPS: 10-day Forecast Highs/Lows)
MORE: Winter Storm Lexi Photos

Winter Storm Nacio Will Bring Snow to the South, Ohio Valley and Mid-Atlantic

Linda Lam
Published: February 8,2016

Winter Storm Nacio will bring snow from the upper Ohio Valley and mid-South into the mid-Atlantic into early Wednesday. Nacio was named Monday afternoon when winter storm warnings were issued by the National Weather Service for more than two million people in parts of Maryland, southeastern Pennsylvania, southern New Jersey and northern Delaware, as well as along the border between Tennessee and North Carolina and part of eastern West Virginia, meeting The Weather Channel's population requirement for a named winter storm.
(MORE: How Winter Storm Are Named)
The snow from Nacio is partially due to upper-level energy accompanying a southward dip in jet stream that is ushering in arctic air across the eastern states. Also playing a role is an area of low pressure developing off the East Coast, and a separate low pressure system in the Great Lakes. This snow is following quickly on the heels of Winter Storm Mars, which will continue to impact New England through early Tuesday.
(MORE: Winter Storm Mars Forecast)
In addition to the winter storm warnings, winter weather advisories are also posted in the Appalachians and upper Ohio Valley.

Winter Weather Alerts
Below is a look at the timing and the snowfall forecast for Winter Storm Nacio.

Early Week Snow Forecast Timing

Tuesday's Forecast
  • Mainly light to locally moderate snow will continue into Tuesday and Tuesday night from the Great Lakes into the Tennessee Valley, Appalachians and mid-Atlantic as low pressure develops and strengthens near the East Coast.
  • There will be an enhanced corridor of moderate to locally heavy accumulating snow from Philadelphia to Baltimore and near or just north of Washington, D.C.
  • Travel delays are possible on roads and at airports in the region.
  • High temperatures will be up to 25 degrees below average from the Upper Midwest to Florida Tuesday and Wednesday, with temperatures possibly not reaching the freezing mark as far south as the Tennessee Valley.

Wednesday's Forecast
  • Mainly light snow lingers from the Great Lakes into parts of the Northeast.
  • Some enhanced areas of snow possible downwind of the Great Lakes snow belts.

How Much Snow is Expected?

Snowfall Forecast Through Wednesday
  • Up to 12 inches of snow is forecast in the Appalachians from south-central Pennsylvania to the North Carolina and Tennessee border. Parts of West Virginia could see more than a foot of snow.
  • In the mid-Atlantic, snowfall amounts either side of 6 inches are possible in a corridor from southeast Pennsylvania and southern New Jersey to portions of Maryland. This includes locations from near Philadelphia to Baltimore to just north of Washington, D.C. Snowfall amounts could vary widely over short distances.

MORE: Winter Storm Mars (PHOTOS)

Winter Storm Mars Bringing Snow and Strong Winds to New England; Blizzard Conditions Reported

February 8,2016

Winter Storm Mars will continue impacting eastern New England into Tuesday with a combination of heavy snow and strong winds, resulting in dangerous travel conditions.
Blizzard conditions were officially verified on Monday on Nantucket Island where wind gusts up to 65 mph have been clocked. Blizzard conditions were also verified in Chatham, Hyannis, Falmouth, Plymouth and on Martha's Vineyard.
(MORE: Winter Storm Mars Impacts)
Coastal flooding was reported in several locations along the Massachusetts coast. Up to 9 inches of snow have been measured in Cape Cod accompanied by blizzard conditions in some areas and 9.8 inches of snow was reported on Martha's Vineyard.
(MORE: What is a Blizzard?)

Current Radar and Winds
The National Weather Service has issued winter storm warnings for coastal areas of southern Maine and southeastern New Hampshire. In addition, winter weather advisories also continue for portions of New England.
(MORE: How Winter Storms Are Named)

Winter Weather Alerts
The snow and strong winds moving through New England into early Tuesday are from a strong area of low pressure passing well off the East Coast. That area of low pressure has undergone what meteorologists call bombogenesis. This is a term generally applied to a storm whose minimum pressure drops at least 24 millibars in 24 hours, indicating a strong and rapidly intensifying storm system. In the case of Mars, the pressure dropped from 1004 millibars at 7 a.m. EST Sunday to 979 millibars by 1 a.m. EST Monday, or 25 millibars in 18 hours.
Despite the far offshore track of the strong low, it is still having a major impact on eastern New England due its very large area of precipitation and strong winds. An additional component of this storm is the potential for ocean-enhanced snowfall near the coast due to strong northeast winds helping to pull extra moisture in from the Atlantic.
Below is a look at what we expect to see from Winter Storm Mars, which will likely have a major impact on travel in eastern New England into Tuesday.

Snowfall Forecast
(FORECASTS: Boston | Nantucket, Massachusetts | Providence | Portland, Maine)
Winter Storm Mars Forecast Key Points:
  • Light to moderate snowfall will continue to impact eastern New England into Tuesday.
  • Snowfall totals of 6 to 12 inches are possible from Rhode Island and eastern Massachusetts into portions of Maine.
  • By Tuesday morning, snowfall from Mars will have ended in southern New England, but will persist in Maine.
  • Some downed tree limbs and power lines were reported Monday morning in southeastern Massachusetts due to strong winds and the weight of wet snow.
  • Moderate coastal flooding occurred in eastern Massachusetts with the Monday late morning to midday high tide. Coastal flooding may occur once again with high tide Monday night and again Tuesday morning.
  • Light snow was seen as far south as the New York City metropolitan area.

Forecast Wind Gusts
Snowfall Reports
The following snowfall totals have been reported as of Monday evening:
  • Oak Bluffs, Massachusetts: 9.8 inches
  • Orleans, Massachusetts: 9 inches
  • Coventry, Rhode Island: 8.5 inches
  • Nantucket: 7 inches
  • Framingham, Massachusetts: 6.3 inches
  • Providence, Rhode Island: 6.2 inches
  • Southhampton, New York: 6 inches
  • Near Stratham, New Hampshire: 5.3 inches
  • New Haven, Connecticut: 6 inches
  • Boston (Logan Airport): 4.7 inches
  • York, Maine: 3 inches

Winter Storm Mars Snowfall Totals
Southeast Coastal Impacts:
Prior to hitting New England, Mars impacted parts of the Southeast coast on Sunday.
  • Mars brought some light sleet and snow accumulations to parts of eastern North Carolina Sunday. Traffic accidents were reported due to light sleet accumulations in Wilson County, North Carolina, Sunday morning.
  • Strong winds from the low pressure system associated with Mars brought a wind gust of 70 mph to Cedar Island, North Carolina. Trees and power lines were downed in Manteo.
  • Flooding was also reported in eastern North Carolina, including from Surf City to Topsail where a few roads were reported to be impassable. Water across highway 12, just south of Cedar Island, was also reported Sunday evening.

PHOTOS: Winter Storm Mars

Hurricane Patricia's 215 mph Winds: A Warning Shot Across Our Bow

By: Jeff Masters , 5:12PM,GMT on February 8,2016

The Eastern Pacific's Hurricane Patricia--rated the strongest hurricane ever recorded in the Western Hemisphere with 200-mph sustained winds on October 23,2015--was actually much stronger, with 215 mph winds, said the National Hurricane Center (NHC) last week, after completing a detailed post-season review. An Air Force hurricane hunter aircraft measured a surface wind of 209-mph in Patricia at 0600 UTC October 23 using a Stepped-Frequency Microwave Radiometer (SFMR); this was the highest surface wind ever measured in a tropical cyclone, worldwide, since the technology was introduced in the mid-1980s. A 207 mph surface wind was measured by the SFMR instrument on a NOAA hurricane hunter aircraft during an eyewall penetration about twelve hours later, at 1732 UTC. In between those two times, there were no measurements by the Hurricane Hunters, but satellite imagery showed that the hurricane improved in organization up until about 1200 UTC, with the eye warming and the eyewall cloud tops cooling. NHC thus assigned Patricia a peak intensity of 215-mph winds with a central pressure of 872 mb at that time. Hurricane Patricia's 215 mph winds officially tie it with the Northwest Pacific's Super Typhoon Nancy of 1961 for strongest winds of any tropical cyclone in world history, and Patricia's lowest pressure of 872 mb makes it the second most intense tropical cyclone in world history, behind the 870 mb measured in the Northwest Pacific's Super Typhoon Tip of 1979 (Tip's top sustained winds of "only" 190 mph were not as high as Patricia's, since Tip was a large, sprawling storm that did not have a tiny concentrated area of extreme eyewall winds.) Note that that the maximum sustained winds estimated in typhoons like Nancy during the 1940s to 1960s are considered by hurricane experts to be too strong; a re-analysis of Super Typhoon Nancy would likely find that its winds were considerably slower than 215 mph. I regard Patricia as unmatched for the strongest winds of any tropical cyclone in recorded history. It is possible that previous hurricanes where hurricane hunter flights were not available, such as the Category 5 1935 Labor Day hurricane that devastated the Florida Keys, had peak winds on par with Patricia, though.

Figure 1. Hurricane Patricia as seen by the MODIS instrument on NASA's Terra spacecraft at 1:30 pm EDT (17:30 UTC) October 23, 2015. At the time, Patricia had 205 mph sustained surface winds and a central pressure of 878 mb. Patricia had peaked at 215 mph sustained winds and a central pressure of 872 mb six hours previously. Image credit: NASA.

Figure 2. Category 5 Hurricane Patricia as seen from the International Space Station on Friday afternoon, October 23, 2015. Image credit: Commander Scott Kelly.

Patricia the fastest- to second-fastest-intensifying Western Hemisphere hurricane on record
In the 24-hour period ending at 2 am EDT (06 UTC) October 23, 2015, Patricia's central pressure dropped an astonishing 95 mb, to 886 mb, and the winds increased by 120 mph, to 205 mph, making Patricia the fastest-intensifying hurricane (by winds) and second-fastest intensifying hurricane (by pressure) ever observed in the Western Hemisphere. The record pressure drop in 24 hours is 97 mb for Hurricane Wilma of 2005 (between 1200 UTC 18 October - 1200 UTC 19 October), and the previous record intensification of winds in 24 hours was 110 mph for Wilma, according to the official NHC report for the storm. Patricia's intensification rate was very close to the WMO-recognized world record for fastest-intensifying tropical cyclone: 100 millibars in just under 24 hours by Super Typhoon Forrest in the Northwest Pacific in 1983.

Another remarkable record: a NOAA reconnaissance aircraft flying through the eye at 17:33 UTC October 23, several hours after the time of estimated peak intensity, measured a maximum 700-mb temperature of 32.2°C (90°F). This is the warmest 700-mb eye temperature ever measured in a tropical cyclone world-wide. The height of the 700 mb level was 2043 meters (about 6700 feet) above sea level, which is the lowest such height ever observed in the tropics in the Western Hemisphere. A more typical height for the 700 mb pressure level is 3180 meters (10,430 feet.) Since hurricane penetrations are done by flying the aircraft at a constant pressure altitude of 10,000 feet (in other words, flying so that the aircraft is continuously experiencing a pressure of approximately 700 mb), the aircraft had to make a steep descent while traversing the eyewall in order to stay at the 700 mb pressure level, and emerged into the eye at an altitude as measured by radar that was below 7,000 feet. The steep descent caused trouble with the SFMR readings, which had to be re-calibrated after the flight to ensure their accuracy. Thanks go to Rich Henning of the NOAA Hurricane Hunters for this info.

Figure 3. Ten-day averaged sea surface temperatures (SSTs) from 1948 - 2015 during mid-October over the waters of the Eastern Pacific off the coast of Mexico between 13°-17°N and 100°-105°W (inset box) traversed by Hurricane Patricia during its rapid intensification period October 20 - 23, 2015. SSTs were at their highest values on record in this region in 2015. Image credit: NHC.

Patricia's record intensification fueled by record-warm ocean waters
Hurricane Patricia's remarkable intensification was made possible by very light wind shear and record warm ocean waters. During its rapid intensification phase, Patricia tracked over a large expanse of anomalously warm waters with sea surface temperatures (SSTs) of 30.5°-31°C (87°-88°F). These were the highest SSTs ever observed over this region in mid-October.

Figure 4. Wind (black) and surface pressure (red) from the afternoon NOAA hurricane hunter flight on October 23, 2015 into Hurricane Patricia, off the Pacific coast of Mexico. The aircraft measured peak winds at their flight level of 10,000 feet of up to 145 knots (165 mph). The winds showed a double maximum in both sides of the eyewall as the plane flew crossed the calm eye, indicating that an eyewall replacement cycle was likely underway. This eyewall replacement cycle helped Patricia become the fastest-weakening hurricane ever observed. The eye was a tiny 6 miles in diameter at this time. Image credit: Levi Cowan, tropicaltidbits.com.

Patricia the fastest-weakening Western Hemisphere hurricane on record
As Patricia approached the rugged Mexican coast, the storm began to weaken due to two major factors: interaction with land, and an eyewall replacement cycle. Patricia’s central pressure is estimated to have risen a remarkable 54 mb in the five hours prior to landfall. No other tropical cyclone over water in either the Atlantic or Eastern North Pacific historical record has been observed to weaken so quickly. Patricia made landfall near 23 UTC October 23 along a sparsely populated part of the coast of southwestern Mexico at Playa Cuixmala, about 50 miles west-northwest of Manzanillo, as a category 4 hurricane with 150 mph winds and an estimated landfall pressure of 932 millibars. This makes Patricia the strongest hurricane on record to make landfall in Mexico, eclipsing the October 1959 Manzanillo hurricane (recently reassessed to have made landfall at category 4 intensity), and Hurricane Madeline in 1976. Note, though, that reliable records for extreme landfalling Mexican hurricanes extend back only to 1988. Only two direct deaths were reported from Patricia's landfall, but damage was a steep $325 million.

Hurricane Hunters measure near-record updrafts and downdrafts
NOAA's hurricane hunter aircraft N43RF ("Miss Piggy") encountered significant turbulence (3 Gs of acceleration in the cockpit) both inbound and outbound from the 1733 UTC October 23 eye fix into Patricia. The aircraft measured a peak updraft of +26.1 m/s (58 mph) and a downdraft of -16.2 m/s (36 mph). Thanks go to Rich Henning of the NOAA Hurricane Hunters for this info. To my knowledge, this is the strongest downdraft ever recorded in a hurricane by the NOAA P-3 Orion Hurricane Hunter aircraft since they began service in 1976. According to an email I received from hurricane scientist Sim Aberson at NOAA's Hurricane Research Division, the only higher updraft ever measured by the P-3s is probably the 31 m/s (69 mph) reading in Category 5 Hurricane Felix of 2007 in the Caribbean. The extreme turbulence associated with this updraft (and the downdraft of 11 m/s or 25 mph that immediately preceded it) forced the aircraft to abort the mission and return to base. The only two other NOAA hurricane hunter flights with comparable extreme updrafts and downdrafts were into Hurricane Emily of 1987 and Hurricane Hugo of 1989. I was the Flight Meteorologist on both flights. Flying at 15,000 feet in Category 3 Hurricane Emily as it was making landfall in Hispaniola, we observed 3 Gs of acceleration during an updraft of +23.9 m/s (53 mph) that was accompanied by a downdraft of -9.6 m/s (21 mph). During this penetration through the eyewall, pilot Jim Gunoe was forced to roll the plane about 20 degrees in order to stop a dangerous aerodynamic flutter that developed in the wings. We then aborted the mission due to the extreme turbulence. Two years later, flying at 1,500 feet into the eyewall of Hurricane Hugo, we hit 5.7 Gs of acceleration as we measured a +21 m/s updraft and -8 m/s downdraft. An engine flamed out during this extreme turbulence, and the pilot was able to pull us out of a steep descent just 880 feet above the waves as we entered the eye. This flight was the subject of a detailed story that I wrote and a 45-minute long video by the TV series, Air Crash Investigation that aired on the National Geographic Channel last year (complete with CGI graphics and actors playing the roles of the crew.) The video is available on YouTube.

The Air Force Hurricane Hunters have encountered similar extreme updrafts and downdrafts in some of their flights into Category 5 hurricanes, such as into Hurricane Wilma of 2005 when it was at peak intensity, but the vertical wind data taken from the Air Force C-130 hurricane hunter aircraft are not routinely analyzed post-flight.

Figure 5. Infrared VIIRS images of Hurricane Patricia near peak strength: 215 mph winds and a central pressure of 872 mb. Image credit: Dan Lindsey, NOAA.

Another record: worst NHC intensity forecast ever made in the Eastern Pacific
As one might expect when trying to forecast the intensity of a hurricane that smashed all previous intensification records in mind-boggling fashion, NHC's intensity forecasts for Patricia were way off. The average error in NHC 48-hour intensity forecasts was 66 mph, compared to an average forecast error of 16 mph for all Eastern Pacific forecasts made during the 2010 - 2014 period. Several of NHC's forecasts for Patricia had intensity errors through 48 hours that were the highest on record since NHC took over warning responsibility in the eastern North Pacific basin in 1988: up to 120 mph off, beating the record 115 mph error for a forecast made in Hurricane Linda of 1997. None of the intensity models anticipated the degree to which Patricia would intensify, nor how quickly it would occur, and the official intensity forecasts for Patricia from NHC severely underestimated the rapid intensification that occurred and failed to explicitly show rapid intensification until it was actually occurring. It should be noted, however, that a key model used to make intensity forecasts--the SHIPS Rapid Intensity (RI) guidance--was temporarily unavailable before Patricia’s rapid intensification began due to missing satellite inputs. Having these data in real time would likely have resulted in better intensity forecasts than those that were made.

Figure 6. Expected change in Atlantic Category 4 and 5 hurricanes per decade expected by the year 2100, according to Knutson et al. (2013), "Dynamical Downscaling Projections of 21st Century Atlantic Hurricane Activity: CMIP3 and CMIP5 Model-based Scenarios." This research used the latest generation of climate models from the 2013 IPCC report, and found "marginally significant" increases in Atlantic Category 4 and 5 hurricanes of 39% - 45% by 2100.

Commentary: Patricia was a warning shot across our bow
Consider, now, if the bad intensity forecasts for Hurricane Patricia had been made for a Hurricane Patricia clone that had ended up making landfall in a heavily populated area such as Miami, Galveston/Houston, Tampa, or New Orleans, but without the hurricane weakening dramatically at landfall. A 15-mile diameter area of 215 mph winds--EF5 tornado speeds--would have caused near-total destruction. Since the storm would have been significantly under-warned for, a full evacuation might not have been completed, resulting in one of the deadliest hurricane tragedies in human history. The ten-year drought in major hurricane landfalls in the U.S. is going to end someday, and an onslaught of major hurricanes like we experienced in 2004 - 2005--seven landfalls by major hurricanes in two years--could happen again. As I discussed in my 2013 post, Hurricanes and Climate Change: Huge Dangers, Huge Unknowns, the consensus among hurricane experts is that climate change is likely to bring an increase in the number of high-end hurricanes like Patricia. Now that ocean temperatures are considerably warmer than they were a few decades ago, the maximum potential intensity a hurricane can reach is higher, and we should expect to see a few Patricias sprinkled among the inevitable phalanxes of major hurricanes that will assault our shores in the coming decades.

Progress is being made in improving hurricane intensity forecasts, thanks to the 10-year Hurricane Forecast Improvement Project (HFIP), which aims to reduce hurricane track and intensity errors by 50% by 2019. Unless some dramatic breakthroughs in intensity forecasting occur in the next three years, though, we are going to fall short of that goal. But if we really want to crack the intensity forecast puzzle, we should be spending far more on hurricane research than we do--something I've been calling for repeatedly over the past ten years. The National Science Board, in a report issued in 2006, called for an increase of $300 million per year in hurricane research funding. That's more than ten times the annual spending on hurricane research of $20 - $25 million per year that we've averaged over the past ten years. The 24 members of the National Science Board are appointed by the President of the United States, and make budget recommendations for the National Science Foundation (NSF). They are not prone to make frivolous budgetary recommendations, and realize that the specter of a Patricia-like nightmare storm hitting with insufficient warning is one to take seriously. Such a large but sensible investment can lead to significantly better intensity forecasts. Will we wait again to see unprecedented mayhem like during Katrina in 2005 and Sandy in 2012 before responding to the need to spend more money on better hurricane forecasts? Consider Patricia a shot across our bow--we have been warned (again.) It is up to us to respond.

Video 1. Incredible footage the flight of NOAA hurricane hunter aircraft N43RF through the eye of Category 5 Hurricane Patricia on the afternoon of October 23, 2015, when the storm was near peak strength, with 205 mph sustained surface winds and a central pressure of 878 mb. Lt. Cmdr. Scott Price (the mission's Aircraft Commander) made the video using a GoPro camera. The video begins inside the eyewall: note that the intense rain and wind combination makes it impossible to see the nose of the aircraft just a few feet away. Since the aircraft is flying perpendicular to the wind in order to find the center, the rainfall is blowing from left to right in front of the pilot's vision. At 37 seconds, the crew enters the eye of the hurricane, where the violent sea-state below becomes visible. Note that due to the storms incredibly steep pressure gradient, the aircraft is pitched downward as the aircraft descends closer to the ocean, in order to keep flying at a constant pressure altitude. At 57 seconds, the curved eyewall on the opposite side of this very small eye becomes apparent. After a couple of slight turns requested by the Flight Meteorologist to report the exact center of the storm, the crew turns right to avoid the worst of the eyewall. At ~2 minutes into the video, the aircraft reaches the opposite eyewall where the crew loses visibility once again. Posted by The NOAA Hurricane Hunters on Thursday, November 5, 2015.

Jeff Masters

Weather Underground National Forecast for Monday,February 8,2016

By: nationalsummary , 11:00PM,GMT on February 7,2016

Weather Underground Forecast for Monday,February 8,2016

An area of low pressure will bring wintry conditions to the upper Midwest on Monday, while an Atlantic system clips the coast of New England.

A broad area of low pressure will generate gusty winds and light to moderate precipitation as it transitions east southeastward over the Great Lakes. This system will usher snow showers across the middle and upper Mississippi Valley, as well as the upper Midwest and northwest New England. A frigid air mass will trail this system and plunge southeastward across the Plains, the Mississippi Valley and the Deep South. By the late evening, a separate system will form over the Mid-Atlantic. This system will produce a light mixture of rain and snow across the Ohio Valley, the Tennessee Valley and the Mid-Atlantic.

Meanwhile, a robust area of low pressure will move north northeastward along the East Coast. This system will brush across the coast of New England on Monday. Moderate to heavy snow showers are expected to impact eastern Connecticut, Rhode Island, eastern Massachusetts, southeast New Hampshire and eastern Maine.

Out west, a ridge of high pressure will linger over the eastern Pacific. This high pressure system will continue to influence a dry weather pattern over the western third of the country. In addition, temperatures will soar 10 to 20 degrees above normal across much of the West Coast.

This Date in Weather History for February 8,2016 from weatherforyou.com

Weather History
For Monday,February 8,2016

1835 - A severe cold wave gripped the southeastern U.S. The mercury dipped to 8 above at Jacksonville FL, and to zero at Savannah GA. Orange trees were killed to the roots. (David Ludlum)
1936 - The temperature at Denver CO plunged to a record 30 degrees below zero. (David Ludlum) (The Weather Channel)
1985 - Blue Canyon, CA, set a 24-hour February snowfall record by receiving 42 inches of snow from February 7th-8th.
1987 - A powerful storm produced blizzard conditions in the Great Lakes Region. Winds gusted to 86 mph at Janesville WI and Cleveland OH received 12 inches of snow. North winds of 50 to 70 mph raised the water level of southern Lake Michigan two feet, and produced waves 12 to 18 feet high, causing seven million dollars damage along the Chicago area shoreline. It was the most damage caused by shoreline flooding and erosion in the history of the city of Chicago. (The National Weather Summary) (Storm Data)
1988 - Arctic air invaded the north central U.S. Hibbing MN reported a morning low of 30 degrees below zero. (The National Weather Summary)
1989 - A winter storm over California produced snow from the beaches of Malibu to the desert canyons around Palm Springs, and the snow created mammoth traffic jams in the Los Angeles Basin. Sixteen cities in the western U.S. reported record low temperatures for the date. Marysville CA reported an all-time record low reading of 21 degrees above zero. (The National Weather Summary) (Storm Data)
1990 - Unseasonably mild weather prevailed across the south central and eastern U.S. Twenty-two cities, including five in Michigan, reported record high temperatures for the date. The afternoon high of 53 degrees at Flint MI surpassed their previous record by ten degrees, and the high of 66 degrees at Burlington IA exceeded their old record by eight degrees. (The National Weather Summary)
2009 - Snow falls at levels above elevations of 11,000 feet on the Big Island's Mauna Loa and Mauna Kea in Hawaii. The Weather Doctor

This Date in Weather History for February 7,2016 from weatherforyou.com

Weather History
For Sunday,February 7,2016
1861 - The temperature at Gouverneur, NY, bottomed out at -40 degrees, a drop of 70 degrees in one day. Two days later the mercury hit 55 degrees. (David Ludlum)
1861 - Hanover, NH, plunged from 37 degrees at 1 PM on the 7th to 32 degrees below zero at 7 AM on the 8th, and West Cummington MA plummeted 80 degrees to -32 degrees. Boston MA plunged from 46 degrees to -14 degrees, and on the 11th was back up to 60 degrees. (7th-8th) (The Weather Channel)
1934 - A deep freeze made it possible to drive from Bay Shore to Fire Island NY. (Sandra and TI Richard Sanders - 1987)
1978 - The worst winter storm of record struck coastal New England. The storm produced 27.5 inches of snow at Boston, and nearly 50 inches in northeastern Rhode Island. The fourteen foot tide at Portland ME was probably the highest of the century. Winds gusted to 79 mph at Boston, and reached 92 mph at Chatham MA. A hurricane size surf caused 75 deaths and 500 million dollars damage. (David Ludlum)
1987 - Low pressure in Manitoba, Canada, pulled warm air up from the Gulf of Mexico, and more than forty cities in the north central U.S. reported record high temperatures for the date, including North Platte NE and Rapid City SD with readings of 73 degrees. (The National Weather Summary)
1988 - Twenty-two cities in the eastern U.S. reported record low temperatures for the date, including Binghamton NY with a reading of 5 degrees below zero. Snow blanketed southern Louisiana, with three inches reported at Cameron. (The National Weather Summary) (Storm Data)
1989 - Twenty-five cities in the western U.S. reported record low temperatures for the date. Lows of 16 at Las Vegas NV, 26 at Bakersfield CA, -29 degrees at Milford UT, and -16 degrees at Reno NV were February records. The low of 43 degrees below zero at Boca CA was a state record for the month of February. In Utah, lows of -32 degrees at Bryce Canyon, -27 degrees at Delta, -29 degrees at Dugway, and -38 degrees at Vernal were all-time records for those locations. (The National Weather Summary)
1990 - A slow moving cold front spread heavy snow across the state of Utah. Storm totals ranged up to 31 inches at Alta, with 24 inches at reported Brighton and 23 inches at Snowbird. Bitter cold weather prevailed across Alaska for the thirteenth day in a row, with morning lows of -42 degrees at Fairbanks, -48 degrees at Nenana, and -54 degrees at Bettles. Anchorage AK reported a record low of 23 degrees below zero. (The National Weather Summary) (Storm Data)